THE LEXICO-SEMANTIC LEVEL
Lexico-semantics refers to how an author put and organize his/her choices of words and its definite meaning that contributes to the text.
Lexical semantics is one of the subfields of semantics. Lexical which means possible words found in the text and semantics which means to study words descriptions. It’s essential to know how language was being describe through this level by noting the method of a writer in using different types of words whether it is simple, profound, or specific just to give meaning to whole text. If we are able to understand the main point of how this level works, and we understand the nature of words and their patterns of combination in a text, we could create an evocative analysis of the text. In this level, they tend to focus more on the language or words description since building series of words can make up a text and provide new ideas out of it.
2. Undertake a lexico-semantic analysis of the following:
Iyaloja: Richly, richly, robe him richly
The cloth of honour is alari Sanyan
is the band of friendship Boa-skin
makes slippers of esteem.
(Death and the King’s Horeseman p. 17)
The word richly was mentioned three times in the first line, and it could be mean as luxurious, bountiful, expensive, or extravagant. The person who was being describe in this poem was robe richly or wore a cover which cost a high value. It simply tells us that he is extremely rich based on the repetition of the words. The word honour was spelled in British English which means reputation, recognition, credit, glory, or kudos. The writer used appropriate words to describe the whole idea she/he wanted to pinpoint for the readers. I think he wants to portray a character whose rich and honorable based on the choices group of words that was included in the poem such as robe him richly, cloth of honor, band of friendship, slippers of esteem. The words he uses are simple type of words that helps the readers to unlock and understand the whole meaning.
3. Distinguish between denotation and connotation.
Denotation is the literal meaning of the word and differs from the feelings or concepts that the word suggests. While connotation is the extension meaning of the word, it is an idea or emotions that the word invokes in addition to its literal meaning.
4. What are lexical relations? Mention and explain some of them.
Connecting individual items to other items in systematic way is one of means to look at vocabulary through the use of primitive semantic relations such as synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms, and hypernyms. Synonyms which means words that are exactly or nearly the same. For example, quiet and peaceful possess the same meaning. Antonyms are words that are opposite in meaning to another. For example, pretty and ugly. Hyponyms are words which is related in inclusion like color and green. And last is hypernyms are words that refer to general concepts. For example, oral testing is hypernym to be more dependable than oral development testing.